"For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one." ~ 1 John 5:7

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The Trinity

The Trinity shield denoting the three persons of the Trinity: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. They are not each other, but each are in the Godhead, three in one.

1. Introduction
2. Explicit Mentions of the Trinity
3. The Old Testament and the Trinity
4. The Father
5. The Holy Ghost
6. The Son
7. Conclusion


One of the key doctrines that separate Christianity from the rest of the world's religion is the Triune God. This is not an optional doctrine. The nature of God is tantamount to the core of the faith and without knowing the real God and denying clear Biblical Scriptures expounding who he is, it is the same as denying him and fashioning God after your own image. Why this is important is because it is crucial one worships the right God and not a different one. The mystery of the Trinity is a bit difficult to understand, but as many Christian denominations know and acknowledge, the Triune God is three persons, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, but it is not three gods but one God. The Bible is clear on this and it distinguishes itself from the rest of the world with their multiple gods or a single god with different forms.

Explicit mentions of the Trinity

In the New Testament, we have a couple of mentions of the Trinity, or at least alluding to their differences. While the three are one, one can see how they are not the same person, but all are God.

For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one.
1 John 5:7

This is the most clear Scripture regarding the three who make up the Trinity: the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost, and these three are one. Some may contest its authenticity, but it nevertheless belongs. Even if it was not, it does not go against core Christian doctrine and does affirm it. Also, there are other ways one can see the Trinity and the separate persons that make up the Godhead.

If I bear witness of myself, my witness is not true.
John 5:31


And the Father himself, which hath sent me, hath borne witness of me. Ye have neither heard his voice at any time, nor seen his shape.
John 5:37


This is the third time I am coming to you. In the mouth of two or three witnesses shall every word be established.
2 Corinthians 13:1

Because the Trinity bears witness according to 1 John 5:7, keep in mind Jesus also said that if he bore witness of himself, it would not be true, but that his Father also bore witness of him. It goes along with the law of two or three witnesses, and in this case, the Trinity itself is the affirmation of three in one.

Now when all the people were baptized, it came to pass, that Jesus also being baptized, and praying, the heaven was opened, And the Holy Ghost descended in a bodily shape like a dove upon him, and a voice came from heaven, which said, Thou art my beloved Son; in thee I am well pleased.
Luke 3:21-22

Keep in mind the baptism of Jesus also affirmed the existence of the Trinity. When Jesus was baptised, heaven opened and the Holy Ghost descended in the bodily shape like a dove, and the voice of the Father came from heaven, where the three different persons of the Trinity were revealed.

The Old Testament and the Trinity

Even though the New Testament reveals the mystery of the Trinity as it is manifest in the three persons in one God, the Godhead (old word meaning 'divinity' or 'godhood') has always been implied throughout the Old Testament, even though it has not been fully revealed to the people of the past. Beginning from Genesis 1, it starts out with a triune reference.

In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.
Genesis 1:1-3

Immediately from the start it says 'in the beginning God'... which states that God himself did create the heaven and the earth. Of course, one may see that it may refer to God the Father, but all three persons of God are present in the very beginning. Verse 2 has the 'Spirit of God' moving upon the face of the waters, referring to the Holy Ghost. And after that, God said, 'Let there be light', which itself is the Word. Who is the Word but the Lord Jesus Christ himself? John even calls back to Genesis 1 with his first verse in his gospel.

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
John 1:1

This word would of course be none other than the Lord Jesus Christ, who was with God and was also God. It does not stop there, as God continues to create the world, and on the sixth day, creates man after his own image. However, it should be noted what pronoun God uses in this particular account.

And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
Genesis 1:26

This is God referring to himself in the first person plural: 'Let us'. Somehow, the multiple persons of one God has been always there even at the beginning of the Bible. This is not like the 'royal we', where a singular entity (usually attributed to queen Victoria) would refer to herself in the first person plural, probably to appear more grand or so. God in this case genuinely hinted towards the fact there are three persons! Even in the Hebrew itself, God is called Elohim (אֱלֹהִים), which has the curious suffix -im, which often denotes plurality. This word when used by other ancient Middle Eastern religions often referred to multiple gods, but in the Bible this is mostly referring to the God of Israel. Is it just God proclaiming he is greater than everyone else? Possibly, but it seems there was more to it after all. He doesn't always refer to himself in the plural, at least until the time Adam and Eve are evicted out of the garden after they transgressed. He would often talk to them in the first person singular, but when in counsel with himself, we see the plural 'we'. This also appears during the tower of Babel incident as well.

And the LORD God said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil: and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever:
Genesis 3:22


And the Lord said, Behold, the people is one, and they have all one language; and this they begin to do: and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do. Go to, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another's speech.
Genesis 11:6-7

Perhaps this would mean that when he talks to man, one person of the Trinity has to appear before him. It would have to be the Son, as no man is able to see God the Father or else he would die. It seems odd to believe that Jesus somehow appeared in the Old Testament, but not only is he often pictured, he also has multiple appearances throughout the Old Testament. Before we embark on this, let us look at the traits of the three persons of God. Keep in mind that all three members of the Godhead are one God, all equal in essence, have the same will, but are separate persons. A lot of their traits overlap since they are all the same God, but being different persons, there are things they do differently.

The Father

When the Bible says God, it would often refer to God the Father. God the Father appears explicitly in the Old Testament, and he will continue to have an appearance in the New Testament. He is predominant in the Old Testament, often referred to as the LORD in all capitals (what we call the Tetragrammaton) or the LORD your God, amongst other titles. The tetragrammaton is a four letter word YHWH (יהוה), without any vowels, which is not uttered by the people of Israel in reverence and respect. Some people believe it is close to 'Yahweh'. The name Jehovah comes from this word, with different vowels added to form something utterable. He reveals himself to be self-sufficient as his name is 'I AM THAT I AM' (Exodus 3:14), saying that there is no one besides him who would share his glory. The word YHWH does come from the Hebrew verb hayah (היה), or to be, and the fact that God is self-sustaining and needs nobody is built-in to the title that is given unto him. This word is translated as LORD in all capitals in English. Compare and contrast it to the other 'Lord' that is mentioned in Psalm 110, which is an Old Testament depiction of the Son who is to come. This Psalm in particular is quoted the most all throughout the New Testament. All caps LORD is referring to God the Father in the Old Testament. This distinction is removed in the New Testament as Greek does not have an equivalent to the tetragrammaton but simply renders all Lords as kyrios (κύριος). He has entered into a covenantal relationship with Israel, and promises his people that he will never change. He also emphasises that he is the only God, and the God of Israel had quite the reputation even amongst the heathens who had their own gods.

And God spake all these words, saying, I am the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. Thou shalt have no other gods before me.
Exodus 20:1-3

God entered into a covenantal relationship with his people, whose father Abraham trusted in the Lord and was promised to be the father of many nations. As the one who brought them out of Egypt, the house of bondage, he had stipulations they had to follow so that their nation will not be destroyed. By keeping the laws which God has made for them, the physical nation Israel would be preserved from its enemies, which mirrored the suzerain-vassal relations of nearby nations that also had that kind of relationship. Israel would be unique, as their God was mightier than the other gods, which were no gods, and that he alone was the ruler of heaven and had no one who could rival his powers. Moses proclaims in Deuteronomy 4:39 that the LORD is God in heaven above and upon the earth beneath, that there is none else.

Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD: And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.
Deuteronomy 6:4-5

There is a reason God often emphasises the oneness of God throughout the Old Testament. Since God was known to be in a covenantal relationship with Israel, he alone must be worshipped, while the heathen nations had multiple gods, all which were false and could not withstand the true God. He often demonstrates his powers to his people through diverse miracles and through his might. For example, God used the ten plagues to show that none of the Egyptian gods could stand up against him. They were direct attacks to their provision, as the blood in the Nile would go against Isis, the goddess of the Nile river, and the plague of darkness against Amun-Ra, the god of the sun. His final strike was against whom the Egyptians believed was the son of the gods himself, the Pharaoh, whose own son succumbed to the plague of the firstborn, showing that he was powerless against the God of the Hebrews.

1 Kings 18 shows God still remains the same, when his spokesperson, the prophet Elijah, challenges king Ahab and his Baal worshipping priests to a showdown at Mount Carmel to see which god indeed can bring the rain to Israel after three years of drought. Baal was a Phoenician god of the rain, and even he could not stand to the God of Israel who instantly brought down rain even after the priests of Baal self-mutilated themselves, beat themselves to this dumb mute idol who could not hear them. A great fire consumed the sacrifice even after it was wet with water, and the power of God showed that he indeed was the God of Israel, with the false priests of Baal slain afterwards. God indeed stood for his own people and he always kept his promise.

But it shall come to pass, if thou wilt not hearken unto the voice of the LORD thy God, to observe to do all his commandments and his statutes which I command thee this day; that all these curses shall come upon thee, and overtake thee:
Deuteronomy 28:15

However, as the God who made his promise and covenant with his own people, so too did he warn his people what would happen should they transgress his laws and anger him. As God is a holy and righteous God and cannot be morally evil nor do it, he would put curses and punishment for even his own who would not hearken unto the voice of the LORD. This would happen many times, as he would see his people continue being obstinate and stiffnecked, not heeding to his words and can only do evil. Many times throughout the Old Testament did this happen, with God laying down curses on his people for their transgressions, and many times would God's own prophet or representative would often have to intercede for his people's transgressions, asking for his forgiveness. This happened many times until ultimately, even in his own kingdom of Israel, and eventually the separated kingdoms of Israel and Judah, did both of them end up in exile to their neighbouring empires, the Assyrians and the Babylonians respectively, due to their continual refusal to heed the words of the LORD their God who brought them out of Egypt.

And the LORD passed by before him, and proclaimed, The LORD, The LORD God, merciful and gracious, longsuffering, and abundant in goodness and truth, Keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children's children, unto the third and to the fourth generation.
Exodus 34:6-7

The Lord is a gracious God. He is not willing that any perish and has sent many ways to tell his people of how much he loves them and how merciful he is to those who truly seek him. He sent prophets to other nations even like to Nineveh where the reluctant Jonah had to find out that God didn't just care about the physical nation Israel, but that his plan was to save the whole world all along. The prophets further reveal that a new covenant that was superior to the one that he made with the nation Israel would come one day. It should be known that the Father himself would be the Father of Israel, often using the imagery of a father and a son (Deuteronomy 1:31, 8:5, 14:1-2, 32:4-6, 18-20, 43, Hosea 11:1, etc). He could not just leave his people to be destroyed by the enemies from without and always made a way for his people to be saved from distress. Throughout sundry times and in diverse manners, he would bring up prophets and leaders, judges, kings, and other figures to deliver the people from their enemies, but ultimately pointing to a redeemer that would come one day. The Davidic king that would come (Psalm 2) would be known as God's son, and it would parallel the sonship of Israel the nation, and of course, the sonship of Adam, the man, who is known as the son of God in Luke 3.

And he said, Thou canst not see my face: for there shall no man see me, and live.
Exodus 33:20

It is clear that God is too holy and too just for man to see. God can do no evil and because of man's inherent nature to sin and the fact nobody is righteous, no man can see the Father and live. God and man cannot relate with each other. Man has to be literally sinless and perfect to even bear the face of the Father. God knew this and thus he would make a plan for the redemption of mankind. The continual cycle of man incurring God's wrath, failing to please God, sinning and getting punished, could end when man puts his trust on the Lord to justify the unrighteous. That's where his son comes in to play, and the Son whom the Old Testament saints awaited were also justified by their faith on the coming Messiah the same way those who knew of him afterwards would also be.

For I am the Lord, I change not; therefore ye sons of Jacob are not consumed.
Malachi 3:6

Thus, understanding the Old Testament God will show who God the Father is in the New Testament. He is the same God and has never changed. His promise with his people still remains. His great plan was to send his only begotten Son so that whosoever believes in him shall not perish but have everlasting life (John 3:16). Jesus repeats and quotes everything the prophets of old have stated, that his father is in heaven, and that he hears the prayers of his children and he knows all their needs (Matthew 6). God is the ruler of all and takes care of his own creation, the flowers, the birds, the world, and of course more than anything else, his own children. He is the same loving God who does not will anyone to perish (2 Peter 3:9) but will exact judgement on those who transgresses against him, for the wrath of God is upon the unbelieving every day (John 3:36). The Father's will is above all, as it is the Father himself, whose relationship with his Son provides an analogy for man himself with his own father or son, dictates the will of the Son who follows all that his Father wills (Matthew 26:39, John 5:19, 6:38, 15:10, etc). It is also the Father who raises his son from the dead (Romans 8:11-13, 10:9, etc), thus it seems in the grand scheme of things the Father is in charge.

Then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down all rule and all authority and power.
1 Corinthians 15:24

At the end of the world when Christ's millennial rule ends, the kingdom will be delivered to the Father, where he shall have all rule and all authority and power, just as it was supposed to be. In the end, God's ultimate and perfect plan will be fulfilled.

The Holy Ghost

And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever;
John 14:16

The Holy Ghost is probably the least mentioned in the Bible of the three, but is nevertheless significant as he is also God. Mind that he is also distinct from the Father and the Son, as Jesus said he will give another Comforter, praying to his Father. In the Old Testament, there are mentions of the Spirit of God, which would refer to the Holy Ghost as he is mentioned in the New Testament. We know also he had a role in the creation as Genesis 1:2 mentions him hovering over the face of the waters, so being God, he was always there from the beginning.

And I will give them one heart, and I will put a new spirit within you; and I will take the stony heart out of their flesh, and will give them an heart of flesh: That they may walk in my statutes, and keep mine ordinances, and do them: and they shall be my people, and I will be their God.
Ezekiel 11:19-20

One of the Holy Ghost's major role is he allows for the renewal of one's spirit. This can also be known as being born again. This function is shown throughout the Old Testament as well as the New Testament. As mentioned with baptism, it is the Holy Ghost who regenerates the believer (Titus 3:5) so that he may be born again. In order for to enter the kingdom of God, he must be born again (John 3:3), which requires the Holy Ghost to regenerate the believer. This is also seen in the Old Testament, as the Lord in Ezekiel tells him that there will be a new spirit, where the stony heart out of their flesh shall be replaced with one of flesh, in order for these regenerate people to keep God's laws and walk by the Spirit. This is the ministry of the Holy Ghost, as the LORD also told Moses in Deuteronomy 30:6 that he will circumcise his heart, which will cause him also to love the Lord with all his heart and all his soul that he may live. This trait is the same as being washed (i.e. baptised) and being renewed by the Holy Ghost. The man of flesh will always be a sinner, but the spirit that indwells in him as the one who regenerated him cannot sin, being God, and thus will also help the believer walk righteously when he walks by the spirit. This will only happen to the saved, as this is exclusively to believers.

That we should be to the praise of his glory, who first trusted in Christ. In whom ye also trusted, after that ye heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation: in whom also after that ye believed, ye were sealed with that holy Spirit of promise, Which is the earnest of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession, unto the praise of his glory.
Ephesians 1:12-14

Tying with the above, another major office of the Holy Ghost is to seal the believers unto the day of redemption. The Holy Ghost begins to indwell in a believer once he believes with his heart the gospel of Jesus Christ. In 1 Corinthians 3:16-17 and 6:19-20, the body is called the temple of God, and this is where the Holy Ghost dwells. He lives in all believers, and this is how they can have the 'earnest of our inheritance'. While we see demonic possessions all throughout the Bible on non-believers, it is impossible for any believers to be possessed by an evil spirit as the Holy Ghost indwells within him.

Cast me not away from thy presence; and take not thy holy spirit from me.
Psalm 51:11

In the Old Testament, we do see the Spirit of God come up some persons throughout the Bible, allowing these men to do the work of God. For example, King Saul in 1 Samuel 10:10 came upon him so people wondered if he was one of the prophets. This also happened to David (1 Samuel 16:12-13) and various judges like Gideon (Judges 6:34), Jephthah (Judges 11:29), Samson (Judges 14:19, 15:14), all to fulfil specific works that were of God. When God's favour was not found in a particular individual, the Spirit would depart, the most notable being king Saul, where an evil spirit from the LORD would end up troubling him instead due to his disobedience (1 Samuel 16:14).

Keep in mind that this was different from the permanent indwelling of the Holy Ghost in the New Testament believers, but for particular tasks, the Holy Ghost would come in and then depart, which is actually the same thing as the New Testament believers putting on the new man, walking in the spirit, putting on Christ, etc. This has nothing to do with one's salvation. Ephesians 5:18 tells us to be not drunk in wine but to be filled with the Spirit. One's salvation is eternally secure due to the indwelling and the sealing of the Holy Ghost, which was always there. God does not change. Being filled with the Spirit is when we go out to do the work of God, such as when we soulwin. The Holy Ghost departed from Saul because he decided to give in to the will of his flesh rather than the will of God, causing his envy and madness to get the better of him and do things not convenient for Christian brethren to do. This can happen to any Christian who strays away from God's laws and decides to live his own way. However, one can never lose his salvation as the Holy Ghost sealed that child of God until the day of redemption. Remember that it is possible to grieve the Holy Spirit, whereby you are sealed (Ephesians 4:30).

Jesus said that he will send the Comforter, the Holy Ghost, who will abide with them forever, but the world cannot receive because they do not know him (John 14:16-17, 26). This implies this will be after Jesus finished his task on earth. It is not that the Holy Ghost was not there and that the Old Testament saints had no presence of him indwelling within them, but that the Holy Ghost will also be a helper in enabling the brethren to do the works of God. Acts 2's day of the Pentecost event had the apostles be filled with the Holy Ghost where they would speak in various languages. This is how the Holy Ghost works through the people, but these apostles always had the Holy Ghost in them. The Holy Ghost coming in during the Pentecost was to help the apostles continue the work of the Lord, not to 're-save' them or anything like that.

Some may say that the filling of the Holy Ghost and the indwelling of the Holy Ghost are the same, or some may suggest that the Old Testament saints did not have the indwelling because the Old Testament does not mention this, but this is preposterous. The Old Testament is mostly a mystery that is elucidated by the New Testament, which told us exactly what the Holy Ghost has been doing all along and who he is. God never changes, and for one to be saved, he has to be sealed by the Holy Ghost. His mode of salvation never changes either, so it would be absurd to claim that the Holy Ghost can leave a person in the Old Testament and thus cause him to be unsaved. Believers were always sealed unto the day of redemption by the Holy Ghost, whether they knew this fact exactly or not. Our God is always the same and so is his plan of salvation, the everlasting gospel.

For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.
2 Peter 1:21

Lastly, another one of the Holy Ghost's office is to enable the saints to interpret the word of God and speak it. He also dispenses gifts and allows the saints to be able to fulfil tasks, much like how the temporary coming up of the spirit was in the Old Testament. Paul writes in 1 Corinthians 2 that it the natural man cannot understand things of the Spirit of God, because they cannot know him. However, fallible men, however sinful they are, whoever believed on the Lord and called upon his name, were used to write the words of God, which is what Peter was writing about in 2 Peter. Although the Bible is authored by fallible men, they were used by God as they were moved by the Holy Ghost, as the Holy Ghost was speaking through them. Ultimately, the word of God is the word of God, but God decided to use man to write his words so that it can be read by anyone. To understand it, however, since it is spiritual, only the Holy Ghost can provide understanding. Jesus also tells his disciples not to worry about the testimony they need to give during persecution, as the Spirit of God will be speaking through them (Matthew 10:19-20). In addition, Paul writes about gifts of the Spirit, which is the word of wisdom, word of knowledge, faith, gifts of healing, working of miracles, prophecy, discerning of spirits, diverse tongues, interpretation of tongues, all by the same Spirit, which is given to man individually according to his will (1 Corinthians 12:7-11).

Even the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you.
John 14:17

Overall, one can see that the same Holy Ghost that was in the Old Testament is the same one in the New Testament. While he was mysterious and not completely revealed in the Old Testament, the New Testament elucidates who he is and what he has been doing all this time.

The Son / The Word

i. Christ as man and God
ii. Human limitations vs. divinity
iii. Theophany of Christ
 a. The Law
 b. History
 c. Poetry and Wisdom
 d. Major Prophets
 e. Minor Prophets
iv. Divinity of Christ explored further

The second person of the Trinity is the one we can perhaps write about the most, as he is the main character of the Bible and history. In fact, the Bible itself, being the Word of God, reflects exactly what the nature of Christ himself is. Being fully man and fully divine, the word of God is also authored by God himself but used man to write those words, and thus we have Jesus being the literal Word himself.

Christ as man and God

It is important to know that Christ's incarnation on earth was so that he could be man alongside us so that he can be the mediator and the bridge that relates man and God, so that only through him can a person be justified and enter heaven.

Jesus saith unto him, Have I been so long time with you, and yet hast thou not known me, Philip? he that hath seen me hath seen the Father; and how sayest thou then, Show us the Father?
John 14:9

In the book of John, Philip asks Jesus to show him the Father. Of course, we know from the attributes of the Father, there is no way for man to see the Father, as Moses was warned himself that he was unable to see his face or else he would die, so God showed him his back. Jesus, however, says 'He that hath seen me hath seen the Father', equating himself to the traits of the Father. Of course, it is possible to see the Son because he is a man. This is also a picture of salvation because one can see Jesus and has beheld the face of God through Jesus alone.

And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory.
1 Timothy 3:16

Jesus is written to have been God manifest in the flesh and justified in the Spirit. His incarnation as a man was so that he could relate to mankind.

For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him.
2 Corinthians 5:21

However, unlike man, Jesus knew no sin. He was perfect, so he had to be God as well in order to fulfil that quality.

Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus: Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: But made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men: And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross.
Philippians 2:5-8

Jesus knew that he was God and thought it not robbery to be equal with God, but made himself of no reputation and was made in the likeness of man. He was man so that he could meditate between God and man so that the man in the estate of being a sinner could be justified before the Lord. The Scriptures do not rob us of the human traits which Jesus exhibits through his time on earth.

And when he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was afterward an hungred.
Matthew 4:2

Jesus hungered like a man, as he fasted for forty days and forty nights.

After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst.
John 19:28

Jesus also thirsted, especially when on the cross, where he was given bitter drink of vinegar with hyssop on a sponge.

And he was in the hinder part of the ship, asleep on a pillow: and they awake him, and say unto him, Master, carest thou not that we perish?
Mark 4:38


Now Jacob's well was there. Jesus therefore, being wearied with his journey, sat thus on the well: and it was about the sixth hour.
John 4:6

Jesus also slept, meaning he was tired and exhausted just like ordinary men are all the time after a long day.

He will not suffer thy foot to be moved: he that keepeth thee will not slumber. Behold, he that keepeth Israel shall neither slumber nor sleep.
Psalm 121:3-4

One may wonder how to qualify this particular passage which says that God does not sleep nor slumber. However, Jesus was practising his human limitations here on earth. It does not mean it robbed him of any divinity, as he was perfect, but because he was man, he too had bodily functions as a normal man would while on earth.

Human Limitations vs. Divinity

But of that day and that hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels which are in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father.
Mark 13:32

One of the better examples of this is when Jesus tells his disciples that when he returns nobody knows, not the angels which are in heaven and neither the Son. It's clear the Father and the Son are distinct, but how does Jesus not know when he returns while his Father does? It is simply the case of Jesus practising his human limitations on earth. Now that he is in heaven, we are sure he has the knowledge of when he returns.

Saying, Father, if thou be willing, remove this cup from me: nevertheless not my will, but thine, be done.
Luke 22:42


For I came down from heaven, not to do mine own will, but the will of him that sent me. And this is the Father's will which hath sent me, that of all which he hath given me I should lose nothing, but should raise it up again at the last day. And this is the will of him that sent me, that every one which seeth the Son, and believeth on him, may have everlasting life: and I will raise him up at the last day.
John 6:38-40

Some people may quip 'was Jesus praying to himself in the garden of Gethsemane?' Throughout the Bible it is clear that Jesus follows the will of the Father, and he was not praying to himself. The Father and the Son are distinct persons, so the Son was praying to the Father and tells him, as he had always been, that he is following only his will and not his own. Jesus' will is the same as the Father's.

And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, Today shalt thou be with me in paradise.
Luke 23:43


He seeing this before spake of the resurrection of Christ, that his soul was not left in hell, neither his flesh did see corruption.
Acts 2:31

When Jesus died on the cross, he told a repentant thief that he would see him together in paradise. However, common belief is that Jesus went to hell for three days to take our sins, and that God raised him from the dead. How then can Jesus be with the deceased thief in heaven and yet be at hell at the same time?

That which hath been is now; and that which is to be hath already been; and God requireth that which is past.
Ecclesiastes 3:15


But, beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing, that one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day.
2 Peter 3:8

Unlike men, God is not constrained by time. This is why Old Testament saints were able to be justified the same way as New Testament saints were, as Jesus already died for their sins and paid for it all. Everything that is right now has already been fulfilled, and for God to be able to see the past, present, and future, the future has to exist or has had happened in some way. God is outside the boundaries of time, and thus, being timeless and eternal and from everlasting to everlasting, he is not confined within those limitations.

Nicodemus answered and said unto him, How can these things be? Jesus answered and said unto him, Art thou a master of Israel, and knowest not these things? Verily, verily, I say unto thee, We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen; and ye receive not our witness. If I have told you earthly things, and ye believe not, how shall ye believe, if I tell you of heavenly things? And no man hath ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven, even the Son of man which is in heaven.
John 3:9-13

When Jesus is having that famous discussion with Nicodemus, the great teacher of the Pharisees is very confused at Jesus' discourse about being born again, as he could not perceive the spiritual things then. Jesus would then tell him if he did not know earthly things then he could not perceive spiritual things. Verse 13 is of interest because he, once again, explains a spiritual matter, that no man hath ascended up to heaven, except one that came down from heaven, even the Son of man which is in heaven. Jesus is speaking in the present tense here, as he is in heaven and also descended from heaven. How can this be?

Like time, God is not confined by the limitations of space either, and thus he is present in heaven, practising his divine traits, while also practising his human traits by relating with men, condescending himself to our lowly estate, and thus possible for him to be with the thief on the cross in paradise while also taking our sins for us in hell. But why would he do that?

Thinkest thou that I cannot now pray to my Father, and he shall presently give me more than twelve legions of angels? But how then shall the scriptures be fulfilled, that thus it must be?
Matthew 26:53-54

When Jesus was going to be captured by his enemies, he said that he could just pray to his Father and get twelve legions of angels to defend him if he wanted that to happen. He did not so that the Scriptures may be fulfilled and that indeed he must die on the cross so that all men may have a way to heaven through him. This is God's love in action: to be in our lowly estate even though he was God, and this was through the second person of the Trinity, the Son, the Word, Jesus Christ.

Theophany of Christ

What did Jesus mean when he said it must be done to fulfil the Scriptures? In the Old Testament, we do see a lot of prophecies and even some proto-appearances of the Lord Jesus Christ, the latter which we call theophany, or the appearance of God. While he is not known as Jesus to these people, consider the traits of the second person of the Trinity, such as being in the flesh, and thus, being able to be seen by men while being God. Also note the fact that some of these foreshadowing is also explicitly mentioned in the New Testament and revealed to be him. Many New Testament authors refer back to a particular Old Testament scripture and expound it. A lot of the time though, we will see Jesus appear as the 'angel of the LORD'.

The Pentateuch (The Law)

Genesis: Jesus was with God (John 1:1) from the start, and thus he was there during the special creation.

And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.
Genesis 3:15

This is what one calls the proto-gospel, as there will be enmity between mankind and the devils, but it will be the seed of the woman (Jesus) whose victory is promised (Romans 16:20).

And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine: and he was the priest of the most high God. And he blessed him, and said, Blessed be Abram of the most high God, possessor of heaven and earth: And blessed be the most high God, which hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand. And he gave him tithes of all.
Genesis 14:18-20

Furthermore, we can see other instances, such as the mysterious figure Melchizedek, king of Salem, in Genesis 14:18-20, who is further explained in Hebrews 7:1-4, that he was the king of righteousness (the meaning of his name), and made like unto the Son of God, without having a mother or a father, nor having a beginning of days, heavily implying he was Jesus himself. Genesis 18 shows God and two angels appear before Abraham, as another appearance of the second person of the Trinity. Abraham's attempted sacrifice of Isaac at Moriah in Genesis 22 also pictures God sacrificing his only begotten Son for us. Hebrews 11:17-19 says he did this out of faith, knowing that God will raise him up even if he did. He also wrestles with Jacob in Genesis 32:30 and gives Jacob a new name, Israel, after he prevails against him.

And he said, Lay not thine hand upon the lad, neither do thou any thing unto him: for now I know that thou fearest God, seeing thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only son from me.
Genesis 22:12

While Joseph was but a man, he was a picture of a future Christ, as he, too, was sold by his own brethren (especially Judah, no less) in Genesis 37:28 for twenty pieces of silver (Judas sold Jesus for thirty pieces), becomes the co-ruler of Egypt when he was 30 (Genesis 41:46, Jesus began his ministry when he was 30), and delivered the known world from the plague of seven years and also saving his own family, picturing the redemption of Jews and Gentiles (i.e. everyone) alike.

Exodus: Exodus 12 features the Passover lamb, which is a picturing of the Messiah. It should be noted that the pure male lamb would be killed in the evening and blood to be placed at the top post and the two side posts of the door, picturing the sacrifice of the Lord Jesus Christ. John the Baptist would know this connection and call Jesus the lamb of God (John 1:29), who would sacrifice himself for the sins of this world. One could also argue Moses also pictures Christ by delivering his people from Egypt, the house of bondage, picturing Jesus delivering his people from the bondage of sins. Jesus quotes Isaiah in Luke 4:18-19, expressing his mission to free his people.

Leviticus: The whole book is filled with laws and ordinances, mostly including sacrifices and how it is done. All of this pictures Jesus' sacrifice. Aaron's sons are the only Levites who are allowed to be priests. Leviticus 16 mentions the office of the high priest, which is also depicting multiple sin offerings for the people and how the high priest must enter the holy place. This chapter also mentions the scapegoat.

Numbers: Although Balaam prophesied for filthy lucre's sakes for Balak, the king of Moab, he does make a famous prophecy about the 'Star out of Jacob' and a 'Sceptre shall rise out of Israel' in Numbers 24:17, which refers to Jesus, who is to be king.

Deuteronomy: Jesus' three office of king, high priest, and prophet are pictures in Deuteronomy 17-18. Deuteronomy 18:18 has Moses telling his people that a prophet among their brethren, which of course typifies Christ. The law is also a picture of what Christ will come to fulfil, as nobody can fulfil them but Christ.

History Books

Joshua: Joshua, the successor of Moses, would lead his people into the promised land. He is a picture of Jesus himself. In fact, his name is Jesus in Greek (Acts 7:45), so Joshua (the Lord saves) shares the same name as Jesus, although they are different people, and Joshua is from the tribe of Ephraim (Joseph) while Jesus Christ is from Judah.

And it came to pass, when Joshua was by Jericho, that he lifted up his eyes and looked, and, behold, there stood a man over against him with his sword drawn in his hand: and Joshua went unto him, and said unto him, Art thou for us, or for our adversaries? And he said, Nay; but as captain of the host of the LORD am I now come. And Joshua fell on his face to the earth, and did worship, and said unto him, What saith my lord unto his servant? And the captain of the LORD's host said unto Joshua, Loose thy shoe from off thy foot; for the place whereon thou standest is holy. And Joshua did so.
Joshua 5:13-15

Also there is a surprise appearance of the 'captain of the host of the LORD' in Joshua 5:13-15. Of course, one does not bow down to angels nor any other created being. Who would that man be?

Judges: The book of Judges is dark, but each of the judges, which God sent to rule his people, picture Jesus Christ as they will rule righteously over their people after delivering them from a foreign power which enslaves them for their sins.

Ruth: Boaz is Ruth's kinsman redeemer. Likewise, Jesus is also our kinsman redeemer. Ruth and Boaz appear in Matthew 1's genealogy that leads to Jesus, as they are David's great grandparents.

1 Samuel: 1 Samuel gives us a tiny prophecy in 1 Samuel 2:10, as Hannah gives praise to the Lord for allowing her to give birth to Samuel. This is about the triumph of the Messiah Samuel's growth circumstances in 1 Samuel 1:26 would echo with Jesus' own childhood growth in Luke 2:52. David, the person who would foreshadow the messianic king, would be introduced in this book.

The adversaries of the LORD shall be broken to pieces; out of heaven shall he thunder upon them: the LORD shall judge the ends of the earth; and he shall give strength unto his king, and exalt the horn of his anointed.
1 Samuel 2:10

2 Samuel: The second book of Samuel is about the life of King David as he succeeds the throne and sets up a new house of Israel after the fall of Saul. 2 Samuel 7:12-16, where David plans to build a house for the Lord, has a prophecy about the sure establishment of the kingdom of Christ which is to succeed David. Jesus is called the Son of David for a reason.

And when thy days be fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, which shall proceed out of thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom. He shall build an house for my name, and I will stablish the throne of his kingdom for ever. I will be his father, and he shall be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with the stripes of the children of men: But my mercy shall not depart away from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I put away before thee. And thine house and thy kingdom shall be established for ever before thee: thy throne shall be established for ever.
2 Samuel 7:12-16

1 Kings: Solomon, who succeeds David, builds a temple for the Lord. The temple itself is also a picture of the place where God will dwell with his people forevermore. However, the kingdom divides into two due to Solomon's disobedience after his death and there comes in two separate kingdoms. We can see despite the wickedness of some of the kings of Judah, the Judaic dynasty of the house of David remains sure and unbroken until Jesus is born from that lineage. More and more, however, the prophets begin to show their faces in this book.

And he cried against the altar in the word of the LORD, and said, O altar, altar, thus saith the LORD; Behold, a child shall be born unto the house of David, Josiah by name; and upon thee shall he offer the priests of the high places that burn incense upon thee, and men's bones shall be burnt upon thee.
1 Kings 13:2

2 Kings: The prophets begin to dominate this book furthermore while the kings are usually only mentioned in the background at the beginning of the book. If Elijah was the John the Baptist, Elisha is the Jesus figure of the book. Elisha's name means 'God saves', similar to Jesus' 'the Lord saves'. Elisha would perform some interesting miracles, double the portion of that of Elijah, such as multiplying oil, resurrecting a child to life, multiplying food for a hundred men with twenty barley loaves (Jesus fed 5000 and 4000 with much less). Some of the kings do picture Jesus, such as king Josiah, who was prophesied in 1 Kings 13 and ends up destroying the idols of the neighbouring now exiled kingdom of Samaria and bringing revival to his native Judah, just before Judah, too, gets invaded and put into exile by Babylon. One interesting instance of a promised saviour is in 2 Kings 13:5, when king Jehoahaz the son of Jehu prays to God for deliverance against the Syrians. Perhaps it refers to the king Jehoash of Israel (Jehoahaz's son) or his grandson king Jeroboam II, who do indeed retake a lot of stolen lands from the Syrians. While they were fallible men and even idolaters, it seems they pictured the eventual saviour of Israel from her enemies.

And Jehoahaz besought the LORD, and the LORD hearkened unto him: for he saw the oppression of Israel, because the king of Syria oppressed them. (And the LORD gave Israel a saviour, so that they went out from under the hand of the Syrians: and the children of Israel dwelt in their tents, as beforetime. Nevertheless they departed not from the sins of the house of Jeroboam, who made Israel sin, but walked therein: and there remained the grove also in Samaria.)
2 Kings 13:4-6

1 Chronicles: This book shows the lineage of the people of Judah of all tribes to show which people would eventually lead towards Jesus. In addition, it shows the life of King David as the king of Judah, which is nostalgic for these post-exile Jews to show their roots, and David being the picture of Jesus as the Messianic king to come from his lineage.

2 Chronicles: Despite the fact the kings of Judah, for the most part, were less than stellar, the line of David was nevertheless preserved so that one day Jesus would be born from this particular line and fulfil the prophecy and promise given unto David. This book particularly talks about the southern kingdom of Judah and not the wayward northern kingdom of Israel.

Ezra: Ezra helps rebuild the temple of the Lord, which pictures Christ bringing back his lost sheep unto his flock. When Jesus reigns Jerusalem, he will be at its centre as well.

Nehemiah: Nehemiah also helps rebuild the temple and helps to strengthen and fortify the temple itself. Likewise, the city that is New Jerusalem will also have thick walls.

Esther: While this book does not mention God directly, it certainly portrays the persecution which the antichrist will do as his purpose is to wage war against the saints (Revelation 13:7) but there is hope that God will deliver his people from certain destruction, which is exactly what Jesus is going to do (Matthew 24:29-31).


Job: Job is a perfect and upright man before the eyes of the Lord (not that he doesn't sin), but his friends do not help him. His sufferings but also his patience are mentioned later in the New Testament (James 5:11), and can also be a picture of Jesus' own suffering for our sins. Some prophecies are also written in Job, such as in Job 19:23-27, which is a great picture of God's words (Jesus) being printed in a book, and the fact that his redeemer lives and that on the latter day upon the earth, there shall be the resurrection.

Oh that my words were now written! oh that they were printed in a book! That they were graven with an iron pen and lead in the rock for ever! For I know that my redeemer liveth, and that he shall stand at the latter day upon the earth: And though after my skin worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God: Whom I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another; though my reins be consumed within me.
Job 19:23-27

Psalm: There are 150 Psalms, but many of them actually point towards Jesus. It doesn't take long to even see him in Psalm 2, where the LORD and his anointed (Messiah/Christ) is mentioned (Psalm 2:2, quoted later in Acts 4:25-28), even to the point where he is declared his Son (Psalm 2:7,12). A lot of other prophetic picturing of Christ, such as in Psalm 18, where David praises his deliverance from Saul, but someplace in the middle of the Psalm David talks about pursuing his enemies and subduing them (Psalm 18:37-44), talking about deliverance and salvation even. Of course Saul never was even harmed by David, so it has to be a future reference to the Christ who is to subdue his enemies and trample them under his feet. This motif continues on, as we see other Psalm, such as Psalm 22, Psalm 40, Psalm 89, Psalm 110 (probably the most referenced Psalm in all of New Testament), Psalm 132, etc, amongst many others that give clear reference to the Christ which is to come.

The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool. The LORD shall send the rod of thy strength out of Zion: rule thou in the midst of thine enemies. Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy power, in the beauties of holiness from the womb of the morning: thou hast the dew of thy youth. The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek. The Lord at thy right hand shall strike through kings in the day of his wrath. He shall judge among the heathen, he shall fill the places with the dead bodies; he shall wound the heads over many countries. He shall drink of the brook in the way: therefore shall he lift up the head.
Psalm 110:1-7

Proverbs: Proverbs 8 personifies wisdom, which also represents Jesus. This book also tells people that the fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge, which is a repeating motif throughout this book.

Ecclesiastes: This isn't exactly the most positive book and it sounds depressing, but it does conclude the book by saying to fear God and keep his commandments, as God will bring every work unto judgement. This pictures the great white throne judgement that will come at the end.

Song of Songs: This is also known as the Song of Solomon. This book has quite the interesting language with all its intimate love being expressed, but even the original translators of the KJV put notes thinking that the depiction has a symbolic depiction of Christ and the church's marriage relationship. This is expressed as analogous to the relationship of husband and wife in Ephesians 5:22-33, and the marriage of the Lamb is also present in the book of Revelation.

Major Prophets

Isaiah: This is the book most people refer to in order to show the prophecies of Jesus in the Old Testament. This book itself is also called the mini-Bible, as there are 66 chapters just like the Bible itself has 66 books, and 39 of these books refer to the times of Judah in those days, while the ltter 27 chapters are more dealing with the far future, some even the end times. Jesus is revealed as being born of a virgin in Isaiah 7:14, being God in Isaiah 9:6, his ministry of healing the sick in Isaiah 35:5-6, quoted by Jesus himself, a light to the Gentiles in Isaiah 42:6, while also being despised by the Jews in Isaiah 49:7, but far more revealing is the chapter of the suffering servant in Isaiah 53, which gives a much clearer picture of Jesus, which is also banned from even being read in the nation of Israel today. This chapter was also referenced to by the Ethiopian eunuch in Acts 8 who could not understand what it meant. Of all the books of the Bible, perhaps Jesus is most clearly depicted in this book.

For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace.
Isaiah 9:6

Jeremiah: The weeping prophet, who had to see the destruction of Jerusalem with his own eyes. Christ, the righteous Branch from David and a King, is prophesied in Jeremiah 23:5, where he is called THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS (Jeremiah 23:5-8), and he shall judge the false prophets very ferociously. Jeremiah 31:31-34 also portrays the new covenant that will be made with Israel and Judah, which is a definite picture of Jesus who is to come and establish the new testament, a better one than the old (Hebrews 7:22).

Lamentations: This is mostly an extension to the book of Jeremiah. While this is a sad book, it is one which does give hope at the end that Jesus will come and remain with them despite the misery of his people.

Ezekiel: Another large prophecy book during the times of the exile. Even though things seem bleak, Christ's kingdom is prophesied in Ezekiel 34, where his servant David is a prince among his people and a shepherd. Of course, this isn't the literal David, who is already long dead, but is talking about the one whom he represented, the Lord Jesus Christ.

Daniel: Daniel is heavy on the imagery of Christ, with perhaps even his actual appearance with the three friends of Daniel in Daniel 3:25, where Nebuchadnezzar would even say that the fourth man inside the furnace which the three friends were supposed to be burning in was like the Son of God. In addition, there are prophecies about Jesus' kingdom in Daniel 7:13-14, where he is called the Son of man, along with his future appearance prophesied directly with number of years in Daniel 9:24-27, as to when he will come and what he will do.

Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times. And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined.
Daniel 9:25-26

Minor Prophets

Hosea: Hosea, meaning salvation, is a picture of the love of Christ as a redeemer of his people himself. Hoshea was also the name of the last king of Israel. Hosea was told to marry a woman named Gomer, a harlot who represented Israel (Gomer is similar to Gomri, or the house of Omri, which was what Israel was known as). Despite her unfaithfulness, Hosea would still go after her and redeemer her just as Christ did. Hosea 11:1 also explicitly states that God called his son out of Egypt, which would also be quoted in Matthew 2:15.

When Israel was a child, then I loved him, and called my son out of Egypt.
Hosea 11:1

Joel: Joel speaks of terrible locusts and the army of the north invading Judah, but there is hope as this book also prominently depicts the Day of the Lord, or the second coming of Jesus. Joel 2:32 states that whosoever calls upon the name of the Lord shall be saved, which is quoted in Romans 10:13, depicting the saviour and how he comes to save his own people.

And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the LORD shall be delivered: for in mount Zion and in Jerusalem shall be deliverance, as the LORD hath said, and in the remnant whom the LORD shall call.
Joel 2:32

Amos: The book of Amos depicts the wealth disparity in the grand days of Jeroboam II, where this poor shepherd from Judah is called to prophesy to Israel. Amos 8 speaks of the bitter day when their oppression of the poor shall result in a day of darkness, but verse 9 specifically may also picture the day Jesus died on the cross and it became darkness (Matthew 27:45, Mark 15:33, Luke 23:44).

And it shall come to pass in that day, saith the Lord God, that I will cause the sun to go down at noon, and I will darken the earth in the clear day: And I will turn your feasts into mourning, and all your songs into lamentation; and I will bring up sackcloth upon all loins, and baldness upon every head; and I will make it as the mourning of an only son, and the end thereof as a bitter day.
Amos 8:9-10

Obadiah: A very short book about the destruction of Edom. The theme also includes the salvation and victories of Jacob, so Jesus will be the one who delivers and avenges his people against his oppressors.

Jonah: Jonah 2 has the famous passage during his time inside a whale's belly. This reluctant prophet remained in there three days and three nights, mirroring the death of Jesus, who went to hell for three days, until he rose again. Starting from verse 6 it seems like Jonah is talking about hell, but he was inside a whale's belly so he couldn't have went down there, so it pictures what will happen to Jesus as he will be brought up from corruption. This is also mentioned by Jesus in Matthew 12:39-41. Salvation is of the LORD.

I went down to the bottoms of the mountains; the earth with her bars was about me for ever: yet hast thou brought up my life from corruption, O LORD my God.
Jonah 2:6

Micah: Micah makes a wonderful prophecy about Jesus being born in a tiny town in Bethlehem in Micah 5:2. Not only is his birth foretold, but his coming kingdom and his conquest over his enemies is also prophesied in that chapter.

But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting.
Micah 5:2

Nahum: The theme is similar to that of Obadiah, but the target is Nineveh, some hundred years after the times of Jonah. The Lord will avenge his faithful, and it seems the same theme of Jesus' conquest over his enemies are foreshadowed here as well.

Habakkuk: Habakkuk makes a famous statement that is quoted by Paul multiple times that the just shall live by faith (Habakkuk 2:4). Habakkuk 3:3 has this place called Teman, where the Holy One from mount Paran has his glory covering the heavens, and the earth being full of praise. Perhaps a picture of Jesus and his reign.

Zephaniah: Zephaniah has sharp judgements against Judah and various nations, but there is an exhortation at the end where the day of the Lord is mentioned, thus depicting the coming of the Lord Jesus Christ and the restoration of his saints.

Haggai: Haggai speaks of the rebuilding of the temple, admonishing people for being slack on rebuilding it. Haggai 2:6-9 is possibly a prophecy of Jesus coming one day to visit it, as there is a greater glory to the second temple than there is the first.

Zechariah: Zechariah has many foreshadowing of the Lord Jesus Christ, as this book is quite large for a minor prophet. Zechariah 3 speaks of Joshua the high priest being washed of his sins and picturing Jesus' mediation between man and God, with the BRANCH himself being prophesied in Zechariah 3:8. Christ the branch is mentioned in Zechariah 6:12-13, as the king and priest. Amongst many other prophecies, Zechariah 9:9 has the triumphant entry of Jesus prophesied, riding on a donkey.

And speak unto him, saying, Thus speaketh the LORD of hosts, saying, Behold the man whose name is The BRANCH; and he shall grow up out of his place, and he shall build the temple of the LORD: Even he shall build the temple of the LORD; and he shall bear the glory, and shall sit and rule upon his throne; and he shall be a priest upon his throne: and the counsel of peace shall be between them both.
Zechariah 6:12-13

Malachi: Malachi speaks of the forerunner to Christ, John the Baptist, as the voice crying from the wilderness who prepares the way of the Lord. Jesus is then said to appear in the temple. This is 400 years before the New Testament when all this will finally come into fruition.

Behold, I will send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me: and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in: behold, he shall come, saith the LORD of hosts. But who may abide the day of his coming? and who shall stand when he appeareth? for he is like a refiner's fire, and like fullers' soap: And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver: and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver, that they may offer unto the LORD an offering in righteousness.
Malachi 3:1-3

The Divinity of Christ Explored Further

Some people may ask the question if Jesus really is the son of God, and therefore, God? There are many Scriptures where he does prove that he indeed is God and found it not robbery to be equal to him.

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
John 1:1


And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth. John bare witness of him, and cried, saying, This was he of whom I spake, He that cometh after me is preferred before me: for he was before me. And of his fulness have all we received, and grace for grace. For the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ.
John 1:14-17

The Word is clearly equated to being God. God took the physical body and became flesh among men. The Word is full of grace and truth, and this comes from Jesus Christ, who is the Word and that he was God from the beginning. 

The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God; As it is written in the prophets, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee. The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.
Mark 1:1-3


The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the LORD, make straight in the desert a highway for our God. Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low: and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough places plain: And the glory of the LORD shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together: for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it.
Isaiah 40:3-5


And this is the record of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, Who art thou?
John 1:19


He said, I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the Lord, as said the prophet Esaias.
John 1:23

In addition, John the Baptist cried from the wilderness preaching about Jesus Christ. He is that very same voice from the wilderness and he is crying for a reason: to prepare the way of the Lord. So who is the Lord? In Mark 1:1-3, it is clear that this is Jesus Christ the Lord. Even though Jesus came to this earth 6 months after John the Baptist, John even knew that Jesus eternally pre-existed before him. This is the one whom John the Baptist was preparing the way for.

That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon, and our hands have handled, of the Word of life; (For the life was manifested, and we have seen it, and bear witness, and shew unto you that eternal life, which was with the Father, and was manifested unto us;) That which we have seen and heard declare we unto you, that ye also may have fellowship with us: and truly our fellowship is with the Father, and with his Son Jesus Christ.
1 John 1:1-3

This is the same evidence for Jesus being the Word, and therefore God. 'That which was from the beginning' is a paraphrase of the Word's trait of being there from the beginning. Verse 3 states that the Word is his Son Jesus Christ, paralleling John's gospel account.

Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day: and he saw it, and was glad. Then said the Jews unto him, Thou art not yet fifty years old, and hast thou seen Abraham? Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am. Then took they up stones to cast at him: but Jesus hid himself, and went out of the temple, going through the midst of them, and so passed by.
John 8:56-59


And Moses said unto God, Behold, when I come unto the children of Israel, and shall say unto them, The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you; and they shall say to me, What is his name? what shall I say unto them? And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you.
Exodus 3:13-14

In the book of John, the Jews become angry at Jesus for telling them he was God. As this echoes the beginning of this book, which states that in the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. By saying 'I am', it refers back to Exodus 3:13-14, where God tells Moses his name as 'I AM'. In Greek this is referred to as Ego Eimi (έγώ είμι), the ego being emphatic first person pronoun. The Jews knew exactly what he was claiming, so they were angry enough to want to stone him. If he did not claim to have always existed (to be God), there would have been no need for this and the claim would have been dismissed.

I and my Father are one. Then the Jews took up stones again to stone him. Jesus answered them, Many good works have I shewed you from my Father; for which of those works do ye stone me? The Jews answered him, saying, For a good work we stone thee not; but for blasphemy; and because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God.
John 10:30-33

Here is another instance which led the Jewish crowds to try and stone Jesus, where Jesus states that he and the Father are one. They do not understand him in the case that Jesus follows the will of the Father, but they do understand that Jesus is claiming to be God. This is enough to get them to be angry at him.

And when he was gone forth into the way, there came one running, and kneeled to him, and asked him, Good Master, what shall I do that I may inherit eternal life? And Jesus said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God.
Mark 10:17-18

Usually people use the anecdote of the rich young man who asks Jesus how to inherit eternal life to disprove his deity, but Jesus' response does not flat out deny himself being God. He is merely saying the only one that is good is God, which is ascertaining the man 'do you realise you are calling me God?' It is also there to rebuke him for trying to inherit eternal life by being good, but nobody is good enough to please God, and he proceeds to tell him from that point on the things that he lack. If one affirms himself to be good, he has to be God, because only God is good. Therefore, there are only two options here: either Jesus is not good and therefore not God, or that Jesus is good and that he is God. It's not a difficult choice to make.

And Thomas answered and said unto him, My Lord and my God. Jesus saith unto him, Thomas, because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed: blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have believed.
John 20:28-29

Thomas declares Jesus to be his Lord and his God after seeing him physically, but Jesus does not rebuke him for his statement. Instead, Jesus tells him an essential statement to the faith that those who believe without even seeing are blessed, which refers to the believers even after the 500 eyewitnesses. He therefore affirms that he is God before the rest.

Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.
Matthew 4:10


And Jesus answered and said unto him, Get thee behind me, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.
Luke 4:8

During Jesus' temptation in the wilderness, Jesus rebukes the devil for asking him to bow down to him so he can give the world's kingdoms to him. Worship is only reserved to God alone, but nobody was ever rebuked by Jesus for worshipping him.

While he spake these things unto them, behold, there came a certain ruler, and worshipped him, saying, My daughter is even now dead: but come and lay thy hand upon her, and she shall live. And Jesus arose, and followed him, and so did his disciples.
Matthew 9:18-19

The example here when Jesus will follow the ruler to raise his daughter from the dead. He worshipped Jesus, but Jesus does not rebuke nor correct the man, unlike angels in Revelation which John bowed down and worshipped twice, and got rebuked just the same.

Then they that were in the ship came and worshipped him, saying, Of a truth thou art the Son of God. And when they were gone over, they came into the land of Gennesaret.
Matthew 14:33-34

Multiple people worship Jesus, but again, there is no rebuke or correction upon them.

And as they went to tell his disciples, behold, Jesus met them, saying, All hail. And they came and held him by the feet, and worshipped him. Then said Jesus unto them, Be not afraid: go tell my brethren that they go into Galilee, and there shall they see me.
Matthew 28:9-10

Jesus, once again, approves of worship from his disciples, especially after the resurrection.

And when they saw him, they worshipped him: but some doubted. And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.
Matthew 28:17-18

The same thing happens here, and that all power is given unto him in heaven and in earth. He equates himself to being God.

When Jesus saw their faith, he said unto the sick of the palsy, Son, thy sins be forgiven thee. But there was certain of the scribes sitting there, and reasoning in their hearts, Why doth this man thus speak blasphemies? who can forgive sins but God only?
Mark 2:5-7

Jesus shows that he has the power to forgive sins, which only God can do. He is accused of blasphemy before the scribes and the Pharisees, but he is doing something only God can do, therefore blatantly and unashamedly showing he is God.

If thou, LORD, shouldest mark iniquities, O Lord, who shall stand? But there is forgiveness with thee, that thou mayest be feared.
Psalm 130:3-4


To the LORD our God belong mercies and forgivenesses, though we have rebelled against him;
Daniel 9:9

This trait of forgiving sins is only something that God can do. If Jesus was not God, he would have never been able to do this.

And immediately when Jesus perceived in his spirit that they so reasoned within themselves, he said unto them, Why reason ye these things in your hearts? Whether is it easier to say to the sick of the palsy, Thy sins be forgiven thee; or to say, Arise, and take up thy bed, and walk? But that ye may know that the Son of man hath power on earth to forgive sins, (he saith to the sick of the palsy,) I say unto thee, Arise, and take up thy bed, and go thy way into thine house.
Mark 2:8-11

Jesus does not repent of his actions, and instead says that he has the power to forgive sins, further proving he is God.

Then spake Jesus again unto them, saying, I am the light of the world: he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life.
John 8:12

Jesus claims to be the light of the world. What exactly is the light of the world and how does that equate to being God?

This then is the message which we have heard of him, and declare unto you, that God is light, and in him is no darkness at all.
1 John 1:5


The LORD is my light and my salvation; whom shall I fear? the LORD is the strength of my life; of whom shall I be afraid?
Psalm 27:1


He revealeth the deep and secret things: he knoweth what is in the darkness, and the light dwelleth with him.
Daniel 2:22


The sun shall be no more thy light by day; neither for brightness shall the moon give light unto thee: but the LORD shall be unto thee an everlasting light, and thy God thy glory.
Isaiah 60:19


O house of Jacob, come ye, and let us walk in the light of the LORD.
Isaiah 2:5

The light is synonymous to God. Remember when the Word cried out in Genesis 1 'Let there be light'. Jesus claiming to be the light of the world, he is claiming he is God.

And now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine own self with the glory which I had with thee before the world was.
John 17:5

Jesus once more, states that he was there from the beginning with God. He existed before the world began and was with the Father.

But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting.
Micah 5:2

Going back to the Old Testament, someone is prophesied to be born from Bethlehem, but is to be the ruler of Israel, whose goings forth has been from old, from everlasting, meaning he was there from the start. Who is this?

Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem, Saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him. When Herod the king had heard these things, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him. And when he had gathered all the chief priests and scribes of the people together, he demanded of them where Christ should be born. And they said unto him, In Bethlehem of Judaea: for thus it is written by the prophet, And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda, art not the least among the princes of Juda: for out of thee shall come a Governor, that shall rule my people Israel.
Matthew 2:1-6

Even the wise men from far away knew that Jesus was going to be born from Bethlehem and desired to worship him, knowing that he was God. Even the chief priests and scribes knew that this would be the Messiah prophesied by Micah.

Hath not the scripture said, That Christ cometh of the seed of David, and out of the town of Bethlehem, where David was?
John 7:42

Christ is further confirmed to be the seed of David born in the town of Bethlehem, thus fulfilling the prophecy.

And when I saw him, I fell at his feet as dead. And he laid his right hand upon me, saying unto me, Fear not; I am the first and the last: I am he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death.
Revelation 1:17-18

Jesus in the beginning of Revelation speaks to John. This we know is him because he was one that lived, then died, then alive again forevermore. Jesus being the first and the last, as alpha and omega, is saying that he is from everlasting to everlasting, also confirming that he is God.

Thus saith the LORD the King of Israel, and his redeemer the LORD of hosts; I am the first, and I am the last; and beside me there is no God.
Isaiah 44:6

If God says that he is the first and the last, and Jesus also says that, he is claiming he is God.

Not purloining, but shewing all good fidelity; that they may adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things.
Titus 2:10


Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;
Titus 2:13

Jesus is explicitly told that he is the great God and Saviour Jesus Christ. Some may see these referring to two different people, the Father and the Son, but this is appositional, speaking that Christ, just like his Father, is God. A few verses earlier in verse 10 we see that 'God our Saviour' is saying that Jesus himself, being the Saviour, is also God.

When Christ, who is our life, shall appear, then shall ye also appear with him in glory.
Colossians 3:4


Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall be: but we know that, when he shall appear, we shall be like him; for we shall see him as he is.
1 John 3:2


For the Son of man shall come in the glory of his Father with his angels; and then he shall reward every man according to his works.
Matthew 16:27


When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory:
Matthew 25:31

Jesus is the great God who will appear in glory, as he is God our Saviour.

My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me: And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand. My Father, which gave them me, is greater than all; and no man is able to pluck them out of my Father's hand. I and my Father are one.
John 10:27-30

Jesus also states that no man can pluck his sheep out of his hands. This is the same attribute God had in the Old Testament as well.

See now that I, even I, am he, and there is no god with me: I kill, and I make alive; I wound, and I heal: neither is there any that can deliver out of my hand.
Deuteronomy 32:39


Thou knowest that I am not wicked; and there is none that can deliver out of thine hand.
Job 10:7


Yea, before the day was I am he; and there is none that can deliver out of my hand: I will work, and who shall let it?
Isaiah 43:13

All of the traits in the Old Testament which has God's firm hands is also attributed to Jesus. Jesus, being the Word, knew that. He is claiming his deity through these attributes, the same way in this chapter he declared that he and his Father were one. He equates himself to the Father through his will and attributes, although he himself is not the Father, but is God nonetheless.

That all men should honour the Son, even as they honour the Father. He that honoureth not the Son honoureth not the Father which hath sent him.
John 5:23

Jesus and the Father are furthermore equated as one can see that the same honour given to the Father should be given to the Son. If Jesus were just a mere prophet or some good teacher or some other human title, then why would Jesus say that the Son would have to be honoured the same way as the Father? Jesus claims deity in this passage as well.


We therefore conclude that all three members of the Godhead are one God. They are different persons, have different functions and offices overall, but are of the same essence, the same will, and all equally God all possessing the attributes of God. They are not the same person who just changes his hat depending on what he wants to do. They are also not three different gods with different wills. To deviate from the necessary doctrine of the Trinity would be heresy as it is a different god which one would fashion after his own image. The Bible is clear on the nature of the Triune God and his mystery revealed.

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